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Tumor of the Uterus in Dogs

Uterine Tumor in Dogs

Uterine tumors in dogs are typically benign and non-cancerous growths. They are uncommon and tend to occur in female dogs of middle age or older who have not been spayed. These tumors originate from the smooth muscle and epithelial tissues lining the uterus. Leiomyomas, which are benign smooth muscle masses, account for 85 to 90 percent of uterine tumors in dogs. Leiomyosarcoma, the malignant form, is found in only 10 percent of cases.


While dogs with these types of tumors may not always show signs of the disease, they can exhibit:

  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pyometra (uterine infection resulting in pus accumulation)
  • Infertility


This category of tumor primarily impacts female dogs that have not undergone spaying.


To diagnose this condition, you will need to provide a comprehensive history of your dog’s health and the onset of symptoms. Your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination, considering the background history of symptoms and potential conditions that may have contributed to the ailment. A complete blood profile, including a chemical blood profile, complete blood count, urinalysis, and electrolyte panel, will be performed to rule out other diseases.

Thoracic X-rays will be taken to assess for potential cancer spread in the chest, while abdominal X-rays will be conducted to identify any abdominal masses. Ultrasound imaging offers enhanced visual sensitivity and may detect a uterine mass during abdominal examination. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide detailed images of the mass and aid in detecting cancer spread throughout the body.

If there is a buildup of abdominal fluid, a sample will be extracted and sent to the laboratory for analysis. A biopsy taken from the tumor will undergo cellular examination to establish a definitive diagnosis.


The optimal treatment involves spaying the dog. However, for cancerous uterine tumors and their spread, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and epirubicin are the most suitable chemotherapeutic options. If your dog is diagnosed with a uterine infection like pyometra, your veterinarian will recommend appropriate medications for treating the infection. Surgical removal of the uterus, or spaying, is frequently the preferred treatment for pyometra.

Living and Management

For malignant uterine tumors, your veterinarian will arrange follow-up appointments every three months to monitor for cancer spread and modify treatment as necessary. Prior to each chemotherapy session, comprehensive bloodwork will be conducted. If the uterine tumor is benign, surgical removal (spaying) typically provides a cure. Your veterinarian will schedule regular health checkups based on your dog’s overall health status, but unless there are underlying conditions, your dog should be able to resume normal activities.

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