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Prostatic Cysts in Dogs

Cysts in the Prostate

Prostate cysts in dogs are linked to various factors: alterations in cell structure due to hormonal fluctuations; retention cysts within the prostate that can create cavities within the tissue or organ; fluid-filled abnormalities encapsulated within a distinct sac; and paraprostatic cysts, located near the prostate, which are fluid-filled lesions with a clear capsule. The size of prostatic cysts varies from a few millimeters to over 20 centimeters. Paraprostatic cysts typically develop either atop and alongside the prostate, pushing against the bladder, or at the posterior of the prostate within the pelvis. These cysts predominantly affect intact male dogs aged between two and twelve years, with larger breeds being more susceptible than smaller ones.

Symptoms and Types

  • Asymptomatic (presenting without symptoms)
  • Lethargy and diminished appetite (anorexia)
  • Abdominal swelling (distention)
  • Constipation may occur if the cyst puts pressure on the rectum
  • Difficulty urinating may result if the cyst compresses the urethra
  • Urethral discharge


  • Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate
  • Androgenic hormones
  • Estrogenic hormones


Your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination of your pet, considering the history of symptoms and potential triggering incidents. Since several conditions could manifest similar symptoms, various diagnostic procedures will be employed to pinpoint the underlying cause in your dog. This will include a comprehensive blood profile comprising a chemical blood profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Prostatic fluid will be collected, either through ejaculation or prostatic massage, for infection testing. Ultrasound will assist in guiding a fine needle to the prostate to extract fluid from any cysts present, a process known as fine needle aspiration.


Prostate cysts can be managed with medications; nonetheless, your veterinarian might suggest castration as a solution to address the condition and deter future occurrences. Large cysts might require drainage under ultrasound guidance before medication administration, whereas surgical removal may be necessary for certain cysts.

Recovery and Management

After treatment, your veterinarian will monitor the progress of the cysts by examining the prostate using ultrasound or x-ray imaging. Following the initial treatment, your veterinarian will assess the size of the cysts at four-week intervals.

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