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Prostate Gland Enlargement in Dogs

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Dogs

The prostate gland plays a crucial role in the male reproductive system, producing a fluid containing simple sugars, citric acid, calcium, and various enzymes that help regulate and safeguard the seminal fluid, enhancing its motility and viability for fertilization.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent age-related issue among dogs. Hyperplasia refers to the abnormal growth of cells in any organ, in this case, the prostate gland. When the enlargement is benign, it does not typically cause discomfort in dogs.

This condition commonly affects intact male dogs around 1-2 years old. Its incidence tends to rise with age, impacting an estimated 95 percent of dogs by the time they reach nine years old.

Symptoms and Types

Many dogs may not exhibit any symptoms whatsoever. However, the following are some potential symptoms associated with this condition:

  • Bloody discharge from the urethra
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Blood in the ejaculate
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Difficulty with bowel movements

Stools appearing ribbon-like

  • Additional symptoms may arise if there’s a prostatic infection or the development of carcinoma (a malignant tumor).


  • Primarily age-related, typically impacting older dogs.
  • Hormonal imbalances also contribute to the condition.


To diagnose the condition, you will need to provide a comprehensive history of your dog’s health and when symptoms began. Your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination of your pet, along with standard fluid samples for laboratory analysis, including a chemical blood profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis.

Typically, laboratory tests will reveal the presence of blood in the urine. If there’s an infection, pus or bacteria may also be detected. Your veterinarian may collect a sample of prostatic fluid via ejaculation or prostatic massage, which can indicate the presence of blood. Further diagnostic procedures will involve X-ray and ultrasonography imaging to assess the size of the prostate gland and its impact on your dog’s health. Using ultrasound guidance, samples can also be directly collected from the prostate gland for analysis.


In many instances, no treatment is necessary. Castration stands as the optimal approach to address this condition, serving to prevent recurrence and reduce the likelihood of conditions fostering carcinoma development. For situations where castration isn’t viable, veterinarians may explore medication options to diminish the enlarged prostate gland. Nonetheless, recurrence remains a possibility even after undergoing medical therapy.

Recovery and Management

Living and managing benign prostate enlargement (BPH) involves recognizing it as an age-related issue, particularly in dogs. Castration stands out as the optimal method for preventing or addressing this problem.

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