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Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) in Dogs

What Is Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) in Dogs?

Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) is an unusual condition in dogs that affects the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive disease. When a veterinarian mentions GME, they’re referring to a condition where the brain, spinal cord, and their surrounding membranes (meninges) become inflamed.

In GME, specific types of white blood cells—macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells—cause granulomatous inflammation. These cells form cuffs around blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord, creating nodules.

There are three primary types of GME: focal, disseminated or multifocal, and ocular. Focal GME is confined to one area in the central nervous system and progresses slowly over three to six months. The disseminated form, which is the most common, affects multiple CNS areas and progresses rapidly over two to six weeks. The ocular form solely impacts the eyes. Dogs can experience more than one type of GME.

While GME can occur in dogs of any age or breed, it’s most prevalent in middle-aged toy and terrier breeds. Typically, dogs develop GME between the ages of 4 and 8.

Symptoms and Types

The symptoms of Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis in dogs vary depending on which part of the central nervous system is affected. For both the focal and disseminated forms, common signs include:

  • Seizures
  • Neck pain
  • Unsteady gait
  • Dragging or knuckling feet while walking
  • Circling behavior
  • Blindness
  • Reduced engagement with surroundings
  • Head tilt
  • Facial abnormalities like partial paralysis
  • Weakness

The ocular form typically manifests as sudden blindness in one or both eyes without other neurological signs.


The specific cause of granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) in dogs remains unknown. However, it is most frequently observed in middle-aged small-breed dogs. Breeds that are predisposed to GME include:

  • Chihuahuas
  • Dachshunds
  • Maltese
  • Miniature Poodles
  • Rat Terriers
  • Toy Poodles
  • West Highland White Terriers
  • Yorkshire Terriers

While genetics likely contribute to the development of GME, an overactive immune response (autoimmune condition) may also play a role.


Diagnosing Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) and similar conditions in dogs can be challenging due to the complexity of inflammatory central nervous system disorders. Therefore, veterinarians often diagnose GME and related conditions as meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO).

Veterinarians begin the diagnostic process with a thorough neurological examination, assessing reflexes and observing the dog’s gait to pinpoint potential affected areas of the central nervous system.

Dogs showing neurological signs typically undergo blood tests and urinalysis to evaluate overall body function and detect any signs of infection, such as elevated white blood cell counts.

Further diagnostic steps may involve:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to generate detailed cross-sectional images of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, obtained via a sample from the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This procedure requires anesthesia to ensure the dog remains still and comfortable.
  • Testing for infectious diseases to rule out conditions like distemper virus, fungal infections, or tick-borne infections that can present with neurological symptoms.

A definitive diagnosis of GME typically requires examining brain tissue under a microscope, often performed during a necropsy.


The treatment of Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) in dogs focuses on managing the autoimmune aspect of the condition since GME cannot be completely cured. The primary objective is to suppress the immune system and alleviate symptoms to maintain the dog’s quality of life.

Typically, dogs are initially prescribed steroids, often prednisolone, to mitigate inflammation and suppress the immune response. Over the long term, additional immunosuppressive drugs such as cytosine arabinoside (a chemotherapy agent) or cyclosporine (an immunomodulator) may be incorporated into the treatment regimen.

For dogs with ocular GME, oral steroids are commonly administered, although some veterinarians may suggest applying steroids directly to the eye. In cases where glaucoma develops, management of this condition becomes necessary. Medications like dorzolamide and timolol are used to reduce fluid production and improve fluid drainage from the eye.

In instances of focal lesions, radiation therapy may be considered as an option. However, dogs undergoing radiation therapy require anesthesia, and there can be potential side effects such as seizures or cataracts from radiation to the head. Standard seizure medications are employed to manage seizures associated with GME.

It’s essential to maintain treatment continuously as discontinuation may lead to recurrence of symptoms. The objective is to determine the lowest effective dose needed to control the disease. Despite efforts, relapses are frequent in cases of GME.

Living and Management

Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) in dogs is a condition that lacks a cure, necessitating lifelong management for affected animals. Although efforts can be made to enhance comfort and quality of life, dogs with focal or disseminated GME displaying worsening clinical signs often face the decision of euthanasia.

Younger dogs may experience extended survival times, but those with seizures or mental activity changes typically have shorter survival periods. Early diagnosis and treatment initiated within the first seven days of clinical signs may contribute to improved survival. Approximately 15% to 25% of dogs with GME succumb to the disease or are euthanized within the initial week of diagnosis. However, dogs that surpass the first month following diagnosis have a reasonable chance of living for several months, and in some cases, over a year. Ocular GME, which typically results in sudden and permanent blindness, is generally not life-threatening unless other forms of GME coexist.

The coordination of affected dogs is likely to be impacted, prompting the use of nonslip mats on hard floors to aid in mobility. Consideration should be given to providing ramps or small steps for furniture access, minimizing the need for jumping. Additionally, maintaining easily accessible food and water bowls is crucial. For dogs experiencing seizures, attaching a bell to their collar may serve as an alert if a seizure occurs in another room.

Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) in Dogs FAQs

How long can a dog live with GME?

While it’s typical for dogs diagnosed with GME to succumb to the disease or undergo humane euthanasia within a week of diagnosis, some dogs with GME manage to live for over a year.

What is the cause of GME in dogs?

The exact cause of granulomatous meningoencephalitis remains unknown, but it is thought to stem from a combination of genetic predisposition and immune system overstimulation.

What are the most common signs of GME in dogs?

Common signs of GME in dogs include alterations in gait, seizures, changes in mental state, loss of coordination and balance, neck discomfort, weakness, and blindness.

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