Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Antibiotic-resistant Bacterial Infections in Dogs

L-Form Bacterial Infections in Dogs

L-form bacteria emerge as spontaneous variants of bacteria due to defective or absent cell walls, or when cell wall synthesis is hindered by antibiotics like penicillin, specific immunoglobulins, or lysosomal enzymes that degrade cell walls. These L-forms represent aberrant versions of typical bacterial cells and can originate from various bacterial species. Unlike standard bacteria, L-forms lack organized cell division due to the absence of cell walls, yet they can still replicate. Unlike regular bacteria, which maintain a standard size during division, L-forms replicate irrespective of size, resulting in a diverse range of sizes. They have been observed across different ecosystems, including humans, animals, and plants. L-forms can be induced from nearly all types of gram-positive and negative bacteria under suitable conditions, and they sporadically occur in dogs.

Symptoms and Types

  • Arthritis


The entry of the organism into the skin and subcutaneous tissue can be facilitated by bites, scratches, or trauma. Additionally, factors such as antibiotic treatment of the host, the host’s resistance, the appropriateness of the site for the establishment of the infective bacterium, and the relatively low to moderate virulence of the infecting bacterium can promote the formation of the infection.


Identifying and isolating L-form bacteria poses a challenge due to their elusive nature. Employing a method of differential diagnosis, which involves thorough examination of outward symptoms and systematically eliminating more common causes, the veterinarian determines the correct disorder for appropriate treatment. By amalgamating all signs, symptoms, and consistent laboratory findings, the veterinarian reaches a conclusive diagnosis. Additionally, the veterinarian collects fluid from draining lesions and joint fluid for analysis to aid in the diagnostic process.


To address L-form organisms, gentle wound cleaning is essential to degrade their fragile structure. Typically, doctors opt for secondary intention healing for open wounds, allowing natural tissue growth over the wound without intentional closure. The primary treatment involves wound cleansing, application of antibiotic ointment, and fresh bandages.

Your veterinarian will prescribe antibiotics to manage both symptoms and the underlying disease; nevertheless, targeting these organisms with antibiotics is challenging due to their resistance. Fever typically subsides within 24-48 hours, yet arthritic symptoms often persist in many cases.

Scroll to Top